History


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  • HISTORY

    PAPER - I

    1. Sources:

    Archaeological sources:

    Exploration, excavation, epigraphy, numismatics, monuments

    Literary sources:

    Indigenous :  Primary and secondary; poetry, scientific literature, literature, literature in regional languages, religious literature.

    Foreign accounts: Greek, Chinese and Arab writers.

    2. Pre-history and Proto-history:

    Geographical factors; hunting and gathering (paleolithic and mesolithic); Beginning of agriculture (neolithic and chalcolithic).

    3. Indus Valley Civilization:

    Origin, date, extent, characteristics, decline, survival  and significance, art and architecture.

    4. Megalithic Cultures:

    Distribution of pastoral and farming cultures outside the Indus, Development of community life, Settlements, Development of agriculture, Crafts, Pottery, and Iron industry.

    5. Aryans and Vedic Period:

    Expansions of Aryans in India. Vedic Period: Religious and philosophic literature; Transformation from Rig Vedic period to the later Vedic period; Political, social and economical life; Significance of the Vedic Age; Evolution of Monarchy and Varna system.

    6. Period of Mahajanapadas:

    Formation of States (Mahajanapada) : Republics and monarchies; Rise of urban centres; Trade routes; Economic growth; Introduction of coinage; Spread of Jainism and Buddhism;  Rise of  Magadha and Nandas. Iranian and Macedonian invasions and their impact.

    7. Mauryan Empire:

    Foundation  of the Mauryan Empire, Chandragupta, Kautilya and Arthashastra;
    Ashoka; Concept of Dharma; Edicts; Polity, Administration; Economy; Art,  architecture and sculpture; External contacts; Religion; Spread of religion; Literature. Disintegration of the empire; Sungas and Kanvas.

    8. Post - Mauryan Period (Indo-Greeks, Sakas, Kushanas, Western Kshatrapas):

    Contact with outside world; growth of urban centres, economy, coinage, development of religions, Mahayana, social conditions, art, architecture, culture, literature and science.

    9. Early State and Society in Eastern India, Deccan and South India:

    Kharavela, The Satavahanas, Tamil States of the Sangam Age;   Administration, economy, land grants, coinage,  trade guilds and urban centres; Buddhist centres; Sangam literature and culture; Art and architecture.

    10. Guptas, Vakatakas and Vardhanas:

    Polity and  administration, Economic conditions, Coinage of the Guptas, Land grants, Decline of urban centres, Indian feudalism, Caste system, Position of women , Education and  educational institutions;  Nalanda,  Vikramshila and Vallabhi, Literature, scientific literature, art and architecture.

    11. Regional States during Gupta Era:

    The Kadambas, Pallavas, Chalukyas of Badami; Polity and Administration, Trade guilds, Literature; growth of Vaishnava and Saiva religions. Tamil Bhakti movement, Shankaracharya; Vedanta; Institutions of temple and temple architecture; Palas, Senas, Rashtrakutas, Paramaras, Polity and administration; Cultural aspects. Arab conquest of Sind; Alberuni, The Chalukyas of Kalyana, Cholas, Hoysalas, Pandyas; Polity and Administration; local Government ;  Growth of  art  and architecture, religious sects, Institution of temple and Mathas,  Agraharas , education and literature, economy and society.

    12. Themes in Early Indian Cultural History:

    Languages and texts, major stages in the evolution of art and architecture, major philosophical thinkers and schools, ideas in Science and Mathematics.

    13. Early Medieval India, 750-1200:

    • Polity: Major political developments in Northern India and the Peninsula, origin and the rise of Rajputs
    • The Cholas:  administration, village economy and society
    • Indian Feudalism
    • Agrarian economy and urban settlements
    • Trade and commerce
    • Society: the status of the Brahman and the new social order
    • Condition of women
    • Indian science and technology

    14. Cultural Traditions in India, 750-1200: -

    • Philosophy :   Skankaracharya  and Vedanta, Ramanuja and Vishishtadvaita, Madhva and Brahma-Mimansa
    • Religion: Forms and features of religion, Tamil devotional cult, growth of Bhakti, Islam and its arrival in India, Sufism
    • Literature: Literature in Sanskrit, growth of Tamil literature, literature in the newly developing languages,  Kalhan’s Rajtarangini, Alberuni’s India
    • Art and Architecture: Temple architecture, sculpture, painting

    15. The Thirteenth Century:

    • Establishment of the Delhi Sultanate: The Ghurian invasions – factors behind Ghurian success
    • Economic, social and cultural consequences
    • Foundation of Delhi Sultanate and early Turkish Sultans
    • Consolidation: The rule of Iltutmish and Balban

    16. The Fourteenth Century:

    • The Khalji Revolution
    • Alauddin Khalji: Conquests and territorial expansion, agrarian and economic measures
    • Muhammad Tughluq: Major projects, agrarian measures, bureaucracy of Muhammad Tughluq
    • Firuz Tughluq:  Agrarian measures, achievements in civil engineering and public works, decline of the Sultanate, foreign contacts and Ibn Battuta’s account

    17. Society, Culture and Economy in the Thirteenth and Fourteenth Centuries:

    • Society: composition of rural society, ruling classes, town dwellers, women, religious classes, caste and slavery under the Sultanate, Bhakti movement, Sufi movement
    • Culture: Persian literature, literature in the regional languages of North India, literature in the languages of South India, Sultanate architecture and new structural forms, painting, evolution of a composite culture
    • Economy: Agricultural production, rise of urban economy and non-agricultural production, trade and commerce

    18. The Fifteenth and Early Sixteenth Century – Political Developments and Economy:

    • Rise of Provincial Dynasties:  Bengal, Kashmir (Zainul Abedin), Gujarat, Malwa, Bahmanids
    • The Vijayanagra Empire
    • Lodis
    • Mughal Empire, First phase: Babur and Humayun
    • The Sur Empire: Sher Shah’s administration
    • Portuguese Colonial enterprise
    • Bhakti and Sufi Movements

    19. The Fifteenth and early Sixteenth Century – Society and Culture:

    • Regional cultural specificities
    • Literary traditions
    • Provincial architecture
    • Society, culture, literature and the arts in Vijayanagara Empire.

    20. Akbar:

    • Conquests and consolidation of the Empire
    • Establishment of Jagir and Mansab systems
    • Rajput policy
    • Evolution of religious and social outlook, theory of Sulh-i-kul and religious policy
    • Court patronage of art and technology

    21. Mughal Empire in the Seventeenth Century:

    • Major  administrative policies of Jahangir, Shahjahan and Aurangzeb
    • The Empire and the Zamindars
    • Religious policies of Jahangir, Shahjahan and Aurangzeb
    • Nature of the Mughal State
    • Late Seventeenth century crisis and the revolts
    • The Ahom Kingdom
    • Shivaji and the early Maratha Kingdom.

    22. Economy and Society in the Sixteenth and Seventeenth Centuries:

    • Population, agricultural production, craft production
    • Towns, commerce with Europe through Dutch, English and French companies: a trade revolution
    • Indian mercantile classes, banking, insurance and credit systems
    • Condition of peasants, condition of women
    • Evolution of the Sikh community and the Khalsa Panth

    23. Culture in the Mughal Empire:

    • Persian histories and other literature
    • Hindi and other religious literature
    • Mughal architecture
    • Mughal painting
    • Provincial architecture and painting
    • Classical music
    • Science and technology

    24. The Eighteenth Century:

    • Factors for the decline of the Mughal Empire
    • The regional principalities: Nizam’s Deccan, Bengal, Awadh
    • Maratha ascendancy under  the Peshwas
    • The Maratha fiscal and financial system
    • Emergence of Afghan Power, Battle of Panipat: 1761
    • State of politics, culture and economy on the eve of the British conquest

    PAPER - II

    1. European Penetration into India: The Early European Settlements; The Portuguese and the Dutch; The English and the French East India Companies; Their struggle for supremacy; Carnatic Wars; Bengal -The conflict between the English and the Nawabs of Bengal; Siraj and the English; The Battle of Plassey; Significance of Plassey.

    2. British Expansion in India: Bengal – Mir Jafar and Mir Kasim; The Battle of Buxar; Mysore; The Marathas; The three Anglo-Maratha Wars; The Punjab.

    3. Early Structure of the British Raj: The early administrative structure; From diarchy to direct control; The Regulating Act (1773); The Pitt’s India Act (1784); The Charter Act (1833); The voice of free trade and  the changing character of British colonial rule; The English utilitarian and India.

    4. Economic Impact of British Colonial Rule:

    (a) Land revenue settlements in British India; The Permanent Settlement; Ryotwari Settlement; Mahalwari Settlement; Economic impact of the revenue arrangements; Commercialization of agriculture; Rise of landless agrarian labourers; Impoverishment of the rural society.

    (b)  Dislocation of traditional trade and commerce; De-industrialisation; Decline of traditional crafts; Drain of wealth; Economic transformation of India; Railroad and communication network including telegraph and postal services; Famine and poverty in the rural interior; European business enterprise and its limitations.

    5. Social and Cultural Developments:

    The state of indigenous education, its dislocation; Orientalist-Anglicist controversy, The introduction of  western education in India;  The rise of press, literature and public opinion; The rise of modern vernacular literature; Progress of science; Christian missionary activities in India.

    6 . Social and Religious Reform movements in Bengal and Other Areas: Ram Mohan Roy, The Brahmo Movement; Devendranath Tagore; Iswarchandra Vidyasagar; The Young Bengal Movement; Dayanada Saraswati; The social reform movements in India including Sati, widow remarriage, child marriage etc. ;  The contribution of Indian renaissance to the growth of modern India; Islamic revivalism– the Feraizi and Wahabi Movements.

    7. Indian Response to British Rule: Peasant movements and tribal uprisings in the 18th and 19thcenturies including the Rangpur Dhing (1783), the Kol Rebellion (1832), the Mopla Rebellion in Malabar (1841-1920), the Santal Hul (1855), Indigo Rebellion (1859-60) , Deccan Uprising (1875) and the Munda Ulgulan (1899-1900); The Great Revolt of 1857 - Origin, character, causes of failure, the consequences;  The shift in the character of peasant uprisings in the post -1857period; the peasant movements of the 1920s and 1930s.

    8.  Factors leading to the birth of Indian Nationalism; Politics of Association; The Foundation of the Indian National Congress; The Safety-valve thesis relating to the birth of the Congress; Programme and objectives of Early Congress; the social composition of early Congress leadership; the Moderates and Extremists; The Partition of Bengal (1905); The Swadeshi Movement in Bengal; the economic and political aspects of Swadeshi Movement; The beginning of revolutionary extremism in India.

    9. Rise of Gandhi; Character of Gandhian nationalism; Gandhi ’s popular  appeal; Rowlatt Satyagraha; the Khilafat Movement; the  Non-cooperation Movement; National politics from the end of the Non-cooperation movement to the beginning of the Civil Disobedience movement; the two phases of the Civil Disobedience Movement; Simon Commission; The Nehru Report; the Round Table Conferences; Nationalism and the Peasant Movements; Nationalism and Working class movements; Women and Indian youth and students in Indian politics (1885-1947); the election of 1937 and the formation of ministries; Cripps Mission; the Quit India Movement; the Wavell Plan; The Cabinet Mission.

    10.  Constitutional Developments in the Colonial India between 1858 and 1935

    11.  Other strands in the National Movement The Revolutionaries: Bengal, the Punjab, Maharashtra, U.P, the Madras Presidency, Outside India. The Left; The Left within the Congress: Jawaharlal Nehru, Subhas Chandra Bose, the Congress Socialist Party; the Communist Party of India, other left parties.

    12. Politics of Separatism; the Muslim League; the Hindu Mahasabha; Communalism and the politics of partition; Transfer of power; Independence.

    13.  Consolidation as a Nation; Nehru’s Foreign Policy; India and her neighbours (1947-1964); The linguistic reorganization of States (1935-1947); Regionalism and regional inequality; Integration of Princely States; Princes in electoral politics; the Question of National Language.

    1 4. Caste and Ethnicity after 1947; Backward castes and tribes in post-colonial electoral politics; Dalit movements.

    15. Economic development and political change; Land reforms; the politics of planning and rural reconstruction; Ecology and environmental policy in post – colonial India; Progress of science.

    16.  Enlightenment and Modern ideas:

    (i) Major ideas of Enlightenment: Kant, Rousseau

    (ii) Spread of Enlightenment in the colonies

    (iii) Rise of socialist ideas (up to Marx); spread of Marxian Socialism.

    17. Origins of Modern Politics:

    (i) European States System.

    (ii) American Revolution and the Constitution.

    (iii) French revolution and aftermath, 1789-1815.

    (iv) American Civil War with reference to Abraham Lincoln and the abolition of slavery.

    (v) British Democratic Politics, 1815-1850; Parliamentary Reformers, Free Traders, Chartists.

    18. Industrialization:

    (i) English Industrial Revolution: Causes and Impact on Society

    (ii) Industrialization in other countries: USA, Germany, Russia, Japan

    (iii) Industrialization and Globalization.

    19. Nation-State System:

    (i) Rise of Nationalism in 19th century

    (ii) Nationalism: state-building in Germany and Italy

    (iii) Disintegration of Empires in the face of the emergence of nationalities across the world.

    20. Imperialism and Colonialism:

    (i) South and South-East Asia

    (ii) Latin America and South Africa

    (iii) Australia

    (iv) Imperialism and free trade: Rise of neo-imperialism.

     

    21. Revolution and Counter-Revolution:

    (i) 19th Century European revolutions

    (ii) The Russian Revolution of 1917-1921

    (iii) Fascist Counter-Revolution, Italy and Germany

    (iv) The Chinese Revolution of 1949

     

    22. World Wars:

    (i) 1st and 2nd World Wars as Total Wars: Societal implications

    (ii) World War I: Causes and consequences

    (iii) World War II: Causes and consequence

     

    23. The World after World War II:

    (i) Emergence of two power blocs

    (ii) Emergence of Third World and non-alignment

    (iii) UNO and the global disputes.

     

    24. Liberation from Colonial Rule:

    (i)    Latin America-Bolivar

    (ii)   Arab World-Egypt

    (iii)  Africa-Apartheid to Democracy

    (iv)  South-East Asia-Vietnam

     

    25. Decolonization and Underdevelopment:

    (i) Factors const raining development: Latin America, Africa

     

    26. Unification of Europe:

    (i)   Post War Foundations: NATO and European Community

    (ii)  Consolidation and Expansion of European Community

    (iii) European Union.

     

    27. Disintegration of Soviet Union and the Rise of the Unipolar World:

    (i) Factors leading to the collapse of Soviet communism and the Soviet Union, 1985-1991

    (ii) Political Changes in Eastern Europe 1989-2001.

    (iii)  End of the cold war and US ascendancy in the World as the lone superpower.

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

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