Political Science

  • UPSC - Previous Years Question Papers


    PAPER - I

    Political Theory and Indian Politics:

    1. Political Theory: meaning and approaches.
    2. Theories of the State:  Liberal, Neoliberal, Marxist, Pluralist, Post-colonial and feminist.
    3. Justice: Conceptions of justice with special reference to Rawl’s theory of justice and its communitarian critiques.
    4. Equality: Social, political and economic; relationship between equality and freedom; Affirmative action.
    5. Rights: Meaning and theories; different kinds of rights; concept of Human Rights.
    6. Democracy: Classical and contemporary theories; different models of democracy – representative, participatory and deliberative.
    7. Concept of power, hegemony, ideology and legitimacy.
    8. Political Ideologies: Liberalism, Socialism, Marxism, Fascism, Gandhism and Feminism.
    9. Indian Political Thought : Dharamshastra, Arthashastra and Buddhist traditions; Sir Syed Ahmed Khan,   Sri Aurobindo, M.K. Gandhi, B.R. Ambedkar, M.N. Roy.
    10. Western Political Thought: Plato, Aristotle, Machiavelli, Hobbes, Locke, John S. Mill, Marx, Gramsci, Hannah Arendt.

    Indian Government and Politics:

    1. Indian Nationalism:
      (a) Political Strategies of India’s Freedom
      Struggle : Constitutionalism To mass Satyagraha, Non-cooperation, Civil Disobedience; Militant and revolutionary movements, Peasant and workers’ movements.
      (b) Perspectives on Indian National Movement: Liberal, Socialist and Marxist; Radical humanist and Dalit.
    2. Making of the Indian Constitution: Legacies of the British rule; different social and political perspectives.
    3. Salient Features of the Indian Constitution: The Preamble, Fundamental Rights and Duties, Directive Principles; Parliamentary System and  Amendment Procedures; Judicial Review and Basic Structure doctrine
    4. (a) Principal Organs of the Union Government: Envisaged role and actual working of  the Executive, Legislature and Supreme Court.
      (b) Principal Organs of the State Government: Envisaged role and actual working of the Executive, Legislature and High Courts.
    5. Grassroots Democracy: Panchayati Raj and Municipal Government; significance of 73rd and 74th Amendments; Grassroot movements.
    6. Statutory  Inst i tut ions/Commissions: Election Commission, Comptroller and Auditor General, Finance Commission, Union Public Service Commission, National Commission for Scheduled Castes, National Commission for Scheduled Tribes, National Commission for Women; National Human Rights Commission, National Commission for Minorities, National Backward Classes Commission.
    7. Federalism: Constitutional provisions; changing nature of centre-state relations; integrationist tendencies and regional aspirations; inter-state disputes.
    8. Planning and Economic Development : Nehruvian and Gandhian perspectives; role of planning and public sector; Green Revolution, land reforms and agrarian relations; liberalilzation and economic reforms.
    9. Caste, Religion and Ethnicity in Indian Politics.
    10. Party System: National and regional political parties, ideological and social bases of parties; patterns of coalition politics; Pressure groups, trends in electoral behaviour; changing socio- economic profile of Legislators.
    11. Social Movements: Civil liberties and human rights movements; women’s movements; environmentalist movements.

    PAPER – II

    Comparative Politics and International Relations

    Comparative Political Analysis and International Politics:

    1. Comparative Politics: Nature and major approaches; political economy and political sociology perspectives; limitations of the comparative method.
    2. State in comparative perspective: Characteristics and changing nature of the State in capitalist and socialist economies, and, advanced industrial and developing societies.
    3. Politics of Representation and Participation: Political parties, pressure groups and social movements in advanced industrial and developing societies.
    4. Globalisation:  Responses from developed and developing societies.
    5. Approaches to the Study of International Relations: Idealist, Realist, Marxist, Functionalist and Systems theory.
    6. Key concepts in International Relations: National interest, Security and power; Balance of power and deterrence; Transnational actors and collective security; World capitalist economy and globalisation.
    7. Changing International Political Order:
      (a) Rise of super powers; strategic and ideological Bipolarity, arms race and Cold War; nuclear threat;
      (b)  Non-aligned movement :  Aims and achievements;
      (c) Collapse of the Soviet Union; Unipolarity and American hegemony; relevance of non-alignment in the contemporary world.
    8. Evolution of the International Economic System: From Brettonwoods to  WTO; Socialist economies and the CMEA (Council for Mutual Economic Assistance);  Third World demand for new international economic order; Globalisation of the world economy.
    9. United Nations: Envisaged role and actual record; specialized UN agencies-aims and functioning; need for UN reforms.
    10. Regionalisation of World Politics:  EU, ASEAN, APEC, SAARC, NAFTA.
    11. Contemporary Global Concerns:  Democracy, human rights, environment, gender justice, terrorism, nuclear proliferation.


    India and the World:

    1. Indian Foreign Policy: Determinants of foreign policy; institutions of policy-making; continuity and change.
    2. India’s Contribution to the Non-Alignment Movement: Different phases; current role.
    3. India and South Asia:
      (a) Regional Co-operation: SAARC – past performance and future prospects.

      (b) South Asia as a Free Trade Area.
      (c) India’s “Look East” policy.
      (d) Impediments to regional co-operation: river water disputes; illegal cross-border migration; ethnic conflicts and insurgencies; border disputes.
    4. India and the Global South:  Relations with Africa and Latin America; leadership role in the demand for NIEO and WTO negotiations.
    5. India and the Global Centres of Power: USA, EU, Japan, China and Russia.
    6. India and the UN System: Role in UN Peace-keeping; demand for Permanent Seat in the Security Council.
    7. India and the Nuclear Question:  Changing perceptions and policy.
    8. Recent developments in Indian Foreign policy: India’s position on the recent crisis in Afghanistan, Iraq and West Asia, growing relations with US and Israel; vision of a new world order.













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